To crack the mystery of dark matter, physicists turn to supersensitive quantum sensors (2023)

To crack the mystery of dark matter, physicists turn to supersensitive quantum sensors (1)

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A version of this story appeared in Science, Vol 376, Issue 6592.Download PDF

Kent Irwin has a vision: He aims to build a glorified radio that will reveal the nature of dark matter, the invisible stuff that makes up 85% of all matter. For decades, physicists have struggled to figure out what the stuff is, stalking one hypothetical particle after another, only to come up empty. However, if dark matter consists of certain nearly massless particles, then in the right setting it might generate faint, unquenchable radio waves. Irwin, a quantum physicist at Stanford University, plans to tune in to that signal in an experiment called Dark Matter Radio (DM Radio).

No ordinary radio will do. To make the experiment practical, Irwin’s team plans to transform it into a quantum sensor—one that exploits the strange rules of quantum mechanics. Quantum sensors are a hot topic, having received $1.275 billion in funding in the 2018 U.S. National Quantum Initiative. Some scientists are employing them as microscopes and gravimeters. But because of the devices’ unparalleled sensitivity, Irwin says, “dark matter is a killer app for quantum sensing.”

(Video) The Mystery of Dark Matter

DM Radio is just one of many new efforts to use quantum sensors to hunt the stuff. Some approaches detect the granularity of the subatomic realm, in which matter and energy come in tiny packets called quanta. Others exploit the trade-offs implicit in the famous Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Still others borrow technologies being developed for quantum computing. Physicists don’t agree on the definition of a quantum sensor, and none of the concepts is entirely new. “I would argue that quantum sensing has been happening in one form or another for a century,” says Peter Abbamonte, a condensed matter physicist and leader of the Center on Quantum Sensing and Quantum Materials at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (UIUC).

Still, Yonatan Kahn, a theoretical physicist at UIUC, says quantum sensors open the way to testing new ideas for what dark matter might be. “You shouldn’t just go blindly looking” for dark matter, Kahn says. “But even if your model is made of bubblegum and paperclips, if it satisfies all cosmological constraints, it’s fair game.” Quantum sensing is essential for testing many of those models, Irwin says. “It can make it possible to do an experiment in 3 years that would otherwise take thousands of years.”

Astrophysical evidence for dark matter has accreted for decades. For example, the stars in spiral galaxies appear to whirl so fast that their own gravity shouldn’t keep them from flying into space. The observation implies that the stars circulate within a vast cloud of dark matter that provides the additional gravity needed to rein them in. Physicists assume it consists of swarms of some as-yet-unknown fundamental particle.

In the 1980s, theorists hypothesized what soon became the leading contender: weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Emerging in the hot soup of particles after the big bang, WIMPs would interact with ordinary matter only through gravity and the weak nuclear force, which produces a kind of radioactive decay. Like the particles that convey the weak force, the W and Z bosons, WIMPs would weigh roughly 100 times as much as a proton. And just enough WIMPs would naturally linger—a few thousand per cubic meter near Earth—to account for dark matter.

Occasionally a WIMP should crash into an atomic nucleus and blast it out of its atom. So, to spot WIMPs, experimenters need only look for recoiling nuclei in detectors built deep underground to protect them from extraneous radiation. But no signs of WIMPs have appeared, even as detectors have grown bigger and more sensitive. Fifteen years ago, WIMP detectors weighed kilograms; now, the biggest contain several tons of frigid liquid xenon.

The second most popular candidate—and one DM Radio targets—is the axion. Far lighter than WIMPs, axions are predicted by a theory that explains a certain symmetry of the strong nuclear force, which binds quarks into trios to make protons and neutrons. Axions would also emerge in the early universe, and theorists originally estimated they could account for dark matter if the axion has a mass between one-quadrillionth and 100-quadrillionths of a proton.

In a strong magnetic field, an axion should sometimes turn into a radio photon whose frequency depends on the axion’s mass. To amplify the faint signal, physicists place in the field an ultracold cylindrical metal cavity designed to resonate with radio waves just as an organ pipe rings with sound. The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington, Seattle, scans the low end of the mass range, and an experiment called the Haloscope at Yale Sensitive to Axion CDM (HAYSTAC) at Yale University probes the high end. But no axions have shown up yet.

To crack the mystery of dark matter, physicists turn to supersensitive quantum sensors (2)

In recent years physicists have begun to consider other possibilities. Maybe axions are either more or less massive than previously estimated. Instead of one type of particle, dark matter might even consist of a hidden “dark sector” of multiple new particles that would interact through gravity but not the three other forces, electromagnetism and the weak and strong nuclear forces. Rather, they would have their own forces, says Kathryn Zurek, a theorist at the California Institute of Technology. So, just as photons convey the electromagnetic force, dark photons might convey a dark electromagnetic force. Dark and ordinary electromagnetism might intertwine so that rarely, a dark photon could morph into an ordinary one.

To spot such quarry, dark matter hunters have turned to quantum sensors—a shift partly inspired by another hot field: quantum computing. A quantum computer flips quantum bits, or qubits, that can be set to 0, 1, or, thanks to the odd rules of quantum mechanics, 0 and 1 at the same time. That may seem irrelevant to hunting dark matter, but such qubits must be carefully controlled and shielded from external interference, exactly what dark matter hunters already do with their detectors, says Aaron Chou, a physicist at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) who works on ADMX. “We have to keep these devices very, very well isolated from the environment so that when we see the very, very rare event, we’re more confident that it might be due to the dark matter.”

The interest in quantum sensors also reflects the tinkerer culture of dark matter hunters, says Reina Maruyama, a nuclear and particle physicist at Yale and co-leader of HAYSTAC. The field has long attracted people interested in developing new detectors and in quick, small-scale experiments, she says. “This kind of footloose approach has always been possible in the dark matter field.”

(Video) Deep Talks: Are you smarter than a dark matter physicist?

For some novel searches, the simplest definition of a quantum sensor may do: It’s any device capable of detecting a single quantum particle, such as a photon or an energetic electron. “I call a quantum sensor something that can detect single quanta in whatever form that takes,” Zurek says. That’s what is needed for hunting particles slightly lighter than WIMPs and plumbing the dark sector, she says.

Such runty particles wouldn’t produce detectable nuclear recoils. A wispy dark sector particle could interact with ordinary matter by emitting a dark photon that morphs into an ordinary photon. But that low-energy photon would barely nudge a nucleus.

In the right semiconductor, however, the same photon could excite an electron and enable it to flow through the material. Kahn and Abbamonte are working on an extremely sensitive photodiode, a device that produces an electrical signal when it absorbs light. Were such a device shielded from light and other forms of radiation and cooled to near absolute zero to reduce noise, a dark matter signal would stand out as a steady pitter-pat of tiny electrical pulses.

The trick is to find a semiconductor sensitive to very low-energy photons, Kahn says. The industrial standard, silicon, releases an electron when it absorbs a photon with an energy of at least 1.1 electron volts (eV). To detect dark sector particles with masses as low as 1/100,000th that of a proton, the material would need to unleash an electron when pinged by a photon of just 0.03 eV. So Kahn, Abbamonte, and colleagues at Los Alamos National Laboratory are exploring “narrow bandgap” semiconductors such as a compound of europium, indium, and antimony.

Even lighter dark-sector particles would create photons with too little energy to liberate an electron in the most sensitive semiconductor. To hunt for them, Zurek and Matt Pyle, a detector physicist at the University of California, Berkeley, are developing a detector that would sense the infinitesimal quantized vibrations set off when a dark photon creates an ordinary photon that pings a nucleus. It would “only rattle that nucleus and produce a bunch of vibrations,” Pyle says. “So the detectors must be fundamentally different.”

Their detector consists of a single crystal of material composed of two types of ions with opposite charges, such as gallium arsenide. The feeble photon spawned by a dark photon would nudge the different ions in opposite directions, setting off quantized vibrations called optical phonons. To detect these vibrations, Zurek and Pyle dot the crystal with small patches of tungsten and chill it to temperatures near absolute zero, where tungsten becomes a superconductor that carries electricity without resistance. Any phonons would slightly warm the tungsten, reducing its superconductivity and leading to a noticeable spike in its resistance.

Within 5 years, the researchers hope to improve their detector’s sensitivity by a factor of 10 so that they can sense a single phonon and hunt dark-sector particles weighing one-millionth as much as a proton. To provide the dark matter, such particles would have to be so numerous that a detector weighing just a few kilograms should be able to spot them or rule them out. And because so few experiments have probed this mass range, even little prototype detectors unshielded from background radiation can yield interesting data, Pyle says. “We run just in our lab aboveground, and we can get world-leading results.”

(Video) William Wester: Solving the Dark Matter Mystery

Some physicists argue that true quantum sensors should do something more subtle. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that if you simultaneously measure the position and momentum of an electron, the product of the uncertainties in those measurements must exceed a “standard quantum limit.” That means no measurement can yield a perfectly precise result, no matter how it’s done. However, the principle also implies you can swap greater uncertainty in one measurement for greater precision in the other. To some physicists, a quantum sensor is one that exploits that trade-off.

To crack the mystery of dark matter, physicists turn to supersensitive quantum sensors (5)

It can make it possible to do an experiment in 3 years that would otherwise take thousands of years.

  • Kent Irwin
  • Stanford University

Physicists are using such schemes to enhance axion searches. To make up dark matter, those lightweight particles would be so numerous that en masse they’d act like a wave, just as sunlight acts more like a light wave than a hail of photons. So with their metal cavities, ADMX and HAYSTAC researchers are searching for the conversion of an invisible axion wave into a detectable radio wave.

Like any wave, the radio wave will have an amplitude that reveals how strong it is and a phase that marks its exact synchronization relative to whatever ultraprecise clock you might choose. Conventional radio circuits measure both and run into a limit set by the uncertainty principle. But axion hunters care only about the signal’s amplitude—is a wave there or not?—and quantum mechanics lets them measure it with greater precision in exchange for more uncertainty in the phase.

HAYSTAC experimenters exploit that trade-off to tamp down noise in their experiment. The vacuum—the backdrop for the measurement—can itself be considered a wave. Although that vacuum wave has on average zero amplitude, its amplitude is still uncertain and fluctuates to create noise. In HAYSTAC a special amplifier reduces the vacuum’s amplitude fluctuations while allowing those in the irrelevant phase to grow bigger, causing any axion signal to stand out more readily. Last year, HAYSTAC researchers reported in Nature that they had searched for and ruled out axions in a narrow range around 19-quadrillionths of a proton mass. By squeezing the noise, they increased the speed of the search by a factor of 2, Maruyama says, and validated the principle.

Such “squeezing” has been demonstrated for decades in laboratory experiments with lasers and optics. Now, Irwin says, “These techniques for beating the standard quantum limit [have] been used to actually do something better, as opposed to do something in a demonstration.” In the DM Radio experiment, he hopes to use a related technique to probe for even lighter axions as well as dark photons.

To crack the mystery of dark matter, physicists turn to supersensitive quantum sensors (6)

To crack the mystery of dark matter, physicists turn to supersensitive quantum sensors (7)

(Video) The Sorry State of Dark Matter Alternatives

Instead of a resonating cavity, DM Radio consists of a radio circuit containing a charge-storing capacitor and a current-storing inductor—a carefully designed coil of wire—both placed in a magnetic field. Axions could convert to radio waves within the inductor coil to create a resonating signal in the circuit at a certain frequency. Researchers can also look for dark photons by reconfiguring the coil and turning off the magnetic field.

To read out the signal, Irwin’s scheme plays on another implication of quantum mechanics, that by measuring a system’s state you may change it. The researchers couple their resonating circuit to a second, higher frequency circuit, so that, much as in AM radio, any dark matter signal would make the amplitude of the higher frequency carrier wave warble. The stronger the coupling, the bigger the warbling, and the more prominent the signal. But stronger coupling also injects noise that could stymie efforts to measure dark matter with greater precision.

Again, a quantum trade-off comes to the rescue. The researchers modify their carrier wave by injecting a tiny warble at the frequency they hope to probe. Just by random chance, that input warble and any dark matter signal will likely be somewhat out of sync, or phase. But the dark matter wave can be thought of as the sum of two components: one that’s exactly in sync with the added signal and one that’s exactly out of sync with it—much as any direction on a map is a combination of north-south and east-west. The experiment is designed to measure the in-sync component with greater precision while injecting all the disturbance into the out-of-sync component, making the measurement more sensitive and accelerating the rate at which the experiment can scan different frequencies.

Irwin and colleagues have already run a small prototype of the experiment. They are now building a larger version, and ultimately they plan one with a coil that has a volume of 1 cubic meter. Implementing the quantum sensing is essential, Irwin says, as without it, scanning the entire frequency range would take thousands of years.

Some dark matter hunters are explicitly borrowing hardware from quantum computing. For example, Fermilab’s Chou and colleagues have used a superconducting qubit—the same kind Google and IBM use in their quantum computers—to perform a proof-of-principle search for dark photons in a very narrow energy range. Like a smaller version of ADMX or HAYSTAC, their experiment centers on a resonating cavity, this one drilled into the edge of an aluminum plate. There a dark photon could convert into radio waves, although at a higher frequency than in ADMX or HAYSTAC. Ordinarily, experimenters would bleed the radio waves out through a hole in the cavity and measure them with a low-noise amplifier. However, the tiny cavity would generate a signal so faint it would drown in noise from the amplifier itself.

The qubit sidesteps that problem. Like any other qubit, the tiny superconducting circuit can act like a clock, cycling between different combinations of 0 and 1 at a rate that depends on the difference in energy between the circuit’s 0 and 1 states. That difference in turn depends on whether there are any radio photons in the cavity. Even one is enough to speed up the clock, Chou says. “We’re going to stick this artificial atomic clock in the cavity and see if it still keeps good time.”

The measurement probes only the amplitude of the radio waves and not their phase, obtaining greater precision in the former in exchange for greater uncertainty in the latter, the team reported last year in Physical Review Letters. It might speed up dark photon searches by as much as a factor of 1300, Chou says, and it could be extended to search for axions, if researchers could apply a magnetic field to the cavity while shielding the sensitive qubit.

One group has invented a scheme to search for WIMPs using another candidate qubit: a so-called nitrogen vacancy (NV) center within a diamond crystal. In an NV, a nitrogen atom replaces a carbon atom in the crystal lattice and creates an adjacent, empty site that collects a pair of electrons that can serve as qubit. A WIMP passing through a diamond can bump carbon atoms out of the way, leaving a trail of NVs roughly 100 nanometers long, says Ronald Walsworth, an experimental physicist at the University of Maryland, College Park. The NVs will absorb and emit light of specific wavelengths, so the track can be spotted clearly with fluorescence microscopy.

(Video) The Unsolved Mystery of Dark Matter

That scheme has little to do with quantum computing, but it would address a looming problem for WIMP searches. If current liquid xenon detectors get much bigger, they should start to see well-known particles called neutrinos, which stream from the Sun. To tell a WIMP from a neutrino, physicists would need to know where a particle came from, as WIMPs should come from the plane of the Galaxy rather than the Sun. A liquid xenon detector can’t determine the direction of a particle that caused a signal. A detector made of diamonds could.

Walsworth envisions a detector formed of millions of millimeter-size synthetic diamonds. A diamond would flash when pierced by a neutrino or WIMP, and an automated system would remove it and scan it for an NV track, using the time of the flash to determine the track’s orientation relative to the Sun and the Galaxy, the team explained last year in Quantum Science and Technology. Walsworth hopes to build a prototype detector in a few years. “I absolutely do not want to claim that our idea would work or that it’s better than other approaches,” he says. “But I think it’s promising enough to go forward.”

Physicists have proposed many other ideas for using quantum sensors to search for dark matter, and the influx of money should help transform them into new technologies, Zurek says. “Things can move faster when you’re funded,” she says. As tool builders, dark matter hunters embrace that push. “They have a great hammer, so they started looking for nails,” Walsworth says. Perhaps they’ll bang out a discovery of cosmic proportions.


How do physicists attempt detect dark matter? ›

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is attempting to find dark matter particles using silicon and germanium crystals cooled to almost absolute zero. Scientists predict that when a dark matter particle interacts with the crystals, it will cause the crystals to vibrate.

What is the quantum mystery? ›

The archetypal example of the quantum mysteries is the "experiment with two holes", where the measured position of a single electron that passes through two holes in a screen can only be explained in terms of the wave function travelling through both holes at once and interfering with itself.

Is dark matter part of quantum physics? ›

A physicist in the US has calculated that dark matter — the unknown entity that makes up the vast majority of matter in the universe — could arise in a simple generalized quantum theory of gravity.

How did Scientist discover dark matter? ›

Dark matter's existence was first inferred by Swiss American astronomer Fritz Zwicky, who in 1933 discovered that the mass of all the stars in the Coma cluster of galaxies provided only about 1 percent of the mass needed to keep the galaxies from escaping the cluster's gravitational pull.

Can dark matter pass through you? ›

How Much Dark Matter Passes Through Our Body? - YouTube

What is CERN trying to prove? ›

After a more than three year pause for upgrades, the accelerator, run by the European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN, is collecting data again. This time it's out to prove the existence of another mysterious substance — dark matter.

What can quantum sensors do? ›

What is Quantum Sensing? Quantum Sensing is an advanced sensor technology that vastly improves the accuracy of how we measure, navigate, study, explore, see, and interact with the world around us by sensing changes in motion, and electric and magnetic fields. The analyzed data is collected at the atomic level.

What is quantum entanglement between humans? ›

Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon in which entangled systems exhibit correlations that cannot be explained by classical physics. It has recently been suggested that a similar process occurs between people and explains anomalous phenomena such as healing.

Is there a quantum realm in real life? ›

While the quantum realm exists in real life, it's somewhat glorified on screen, as expected, and theoretically, time travel is technically is possible — at least at a subatomic level.

Does dark matter break the laws of physics? ›

It does not need to violate any known laws of physics. The only way in which dark matter needs to differ from regular matter is that it doesn't interact electromagnetically, or it has electromagnetic interactions that are so weak that they can't be observed. It definitely needs to interact gravitationally.

Does dark matter have a magnetic field? ›

Unlike normal matter, dark matter does not interact with the electromagnetic force. This means it does not absorb, reflect or emit light, making it extremely hard to spot. In fact, researchers have been able to infer the existence of dark matter only from the gravitational effect it seems to have on visible matter.

Is dark matter an antigravity? ›

Boiling sea of particles in space may create repulsive gravity. The mysterious substance known as dark matter may actually be an illusion created by gravitational interactions between short-lived particles of matter and antimatter, a new study says.

WHO confirmed dark matter? ›

Vera Rubin, American astronomer who established the presence of dark matter in galaxies, measures spectra in the 1970s.

Is there proof of dark matter? ›

Dark matter and normal matter have been wrenched apart by the tremendous collision of two large clusters of galaxies. The discovery, using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes, gives direct evidence for the existence of dark matter.

What was the original evidence for dark matter? ›

The first real evidence for dark matter came in 1933, when Caltech's Fritz Zwicky used the Mount Wilson Observatory to measure the visible mass of a cluster of galaxies and found that it was much too small to prevent the galaxies from escaping the gravitational pull of the cluster.

Can dark matter be used as a weapon? ›

In Universe at War: Earth Assault, the Masari use Dark Matter as a weapon. Dark Matter is also used as shielding for the Masari in the form of Dark Matter armour.

What happens if dark matter touches Earth? ›

Dark matter particles can penetrate all other forms of matter, which means that they may even be able to traverse right through our planet without losing any energy whatsoever. On the other hand, their impact with ordinary matter that Earth is comprised of may hamper them slightly, resulting in a loss of energy.

Can you harness dark energy? ›

If we were able to harness the power of dark energy, however, we'd be using it for a lot more than simply powering our iPhone. Instead, tapping into dark energy could usher in a whole new era of human spaceflight. Theoretically, a spacecraft that runs on dark energy is possible.

Why is it called the God particle? ›

The Higgs boson is often called "the God particle" because it's said to be what caused the "Big Bang" that created our universe many years ago.

Did CERN break the speed of light? ›

Scientists said on Thursday they recorded particles travelling faster than light - a finding that could overturn one of Einstein's fundamental laws of the universe.

Can CERN create antimatter? ›

Antimatter is produced in many experiments at CERN. In collisions at the Large Hadron Collider the antiparticles that are produced cannot be trapped because of their very high energy - they annihilate harmlessly in the detectors. The Antiproton Decelerator at CERN produces much slower antiprotons that can be trapped.

Does quantum physics affect the brain? ›

It's not specific to our brains; it's out there, in the physical world. But it usually plays a totally insignificant role. It would have to be in the bridge between quantum and classical levels of behavior—that is, where quantum measurement comes in.

Is quantum tunneling possible for humans? ›

So once again, for a human being the answer is: almost impossible. However for objects with extremely small masses (such as electrons) the probability can be quite high.

What do quantum gates do? ›

A quantum gate or quantum logic gate is a rudimentary quantum circuit operating on a small number of qubits. They are the analogues for quantum computers to classical logic gates for conventional digital computers. Quantum logic gates are reversible, unlike many classical logic gates.

Can you transmit information with quantum entanglement? ›

However, even though entangled quantum particles seem to interact with each other instantaneously -regardless of the distance, breaking the speed of light – with our current understanding of quantum mechanics, it is impossible to send data using quantum entanglement.

Is the brain a quantum computer? ›

Third, there is no psychological evidence that such mental phenomena as consciousness and mathematical thinking require explanation via quantum theory. We conclude that understanding brain function is unlikely to require quantum computation or similar mechanisms.

Can we communicate via quantum entanglement? ›

No. While quantum entanglement can cause particles to collapse instantaneously over long distances, we can't use that to transport information faster than the speed of light. It turns out entanglement alone is not enough to send data.

What is a quantum weapon? ›

The ability to wield or create weapons using quantum mechanics.

How do I access quantum realm? ›

The Quantum Realm is a dimension in the Multiverse only accessible through magic, Pym Particles or a Quantum Tunnel.

Do humans have quantum? ›

For human beings, with about 1028 atoms present in each of us, the quantum wavelength associated with a fully formed human is large enough to have physical meaning.

Does dark matter interact with space time? ›

The high dark matter content of the Universe reveals its existence across different "space time" scales by perturbing the kinematical and dynamical properties of galaxies, and clusters of galaxies, lensing the cosmic background radiations, driving the cosmological evolution phases, clustering the visible matter in ...

Is dark matter a scientific theory? ›

Dark matter is still a hypothesis, albeit a rather well-supported one. Any scientific theory has to make predictions, and if it's right, then the measurements you do should line up with the predictions. The same goes for dark matter.

Can dark matter be used as fuel? ›

Scientist Says Dark Matter Could Likely Be Incredible Fuel for Spacecraft.

Does dark matter give off electromagnetic radiation? ›

Dark matter does not reveal its presence by emitting any type of electromagnetic radiation. It emits no infrared radiation, nor does it give off radio waves, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays or gamma rays.

Can dark matter have electric charge? ›

We are constraining the possibility that dark matter particles carry a tiny electrical charge – equal to one millionth that of an electron – through measurable signals from the cosmic dawn,” said Loeb. “Such tiny charges are impossible to observe even with the largest particle accelerators.”

What energy is dark matter? ›

Dark matter makes up most of the mass of galaxies and galaxy clusters, and is responsible for the way galaxies are organized on grand scales. Dark energy, meanwhile, is the name we give the mysterious influence driving the accelerated expansion of the universe.

Can antimatter reverse gravity? ›

In the experiments, conducted over an 18 month period at CERN's antimatter factory (yes, such a place really exists), the scientists found that matter and antimatter particles responded to gravity in the same way, with an accuracy of 97%.

Is there dark energy on Earth? ›

A physics experiment may have unexpectedly detected dark energy on Earth. “If it's true, it's a stunning discovery.” Dark energy isn't just dark — it's nigh invisible. Hypothesized by physicists to drive the accelerating expansion of the universe, dark energy has never been directly observed or measured.

Is antigravity possible on Earth? ›

Gravity's draw is simply masked by the free-falling motion of a spacecraft as it circles the planet. Only way out in deep space, beyond the domain of any planets or stars, can you truly escape gravity. As of yet, no technology exists to neutralize the pull of gravity.

Who owns dark matter? ›

Company history

DarkMatter was founded in either 2014 or 2015 by Faisal al-Bannai, the founder of mobile phone vendor Axiom Telecom and the son of a major general in the Dubai Police Force.

Who wiped the minds in dark matter? ›

And then there's Five, the homeless moppet and tech geek who wiped the crew's memories for reasons unknown, though it may have something to do with a murder being planned by Two and Three before they went into stasis.

What is dark matter magic? ›

In anime/manga Dark Matter has broad range of powers, including Form Manipulation/Elemental Manipulation. It isn't associated with space, but more with "Supernatural" form of matter normally associated with Dark Energy Manipulation, various forms of Magic and Destructive Energy Manipulation.

Has NASA found dark matter? ›

Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and a new observing technique, astronomers have found that dark matter forms much smaller clumps than previously known. This result confirms one of the fundamental predictions of the widely accepted "cold dark matter" theory.

Is dark matter antimatter? ›

Third, dark matter is not antimatter, because we do not see the unique gamma rays that are produced when antimatter annihilates with matter. Finally, we can rule out large galaxy-sized black holes on the basis of how many gravitational lenses we see.

What is dark matter manipulation? ›

Dark Matter Manipulation is the ability to control Dark Matter, which is a hypothetical form of matter that gets it's name from the fact it can't be interacted with electromagnetic radiation, such as light.

What is dark energy doing to the universe? ›

The energy from the Big Bang drove the universe's early expansion. Since then, gravity and dark energy have engaged in a cosmic tug of war. Gravity pulls galaxies closer together; dark energy pushes them apart. Whether the universe is expanding or contracting depends on which force dominates, gravity or dark energy.

How do you test for dark matter? ›

To look for dark matter, experiments essentially “make it, break it or shake it”. The LHC has been trying to make it by colliding beams of protons. Some experiments are using telescopes in space and on the ground to look for indirect signals of dark-matter particles as they collide and break themselves out in space.

What shows evidence of dark matter? ›

The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, ...

How is dark energy detected? ›

Dark energy is detected by its effect on the rate at which the universe expands and its effect on the rate at which large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies form through gravitational instabilities.

How do astronomers detect dark matter quizlet? ›

How do astronomers "see" dark matter? When observing the Milky Way Galaxy's rotation curve, it has more of an upward slant, indicating that there is a lot more mass in our solar system than what we observe. The matter that we cannot observe, we call dark matter.

Is dark matter magnetic? ›

Unlike normal matter, dark matter does not interact with the electromagnetic force. This means it does not absorb, reflect or emit light, making it extremely hard to spot. In fact, researchers have been able to infer the existence of dark matter only from the gravitational effect it seems to have on visible matter.

Can scientists make dark matter? ›

Several scientific groups, including one at CERN's Large Hadron Collider, are currently working to generate dark matter particles for study in the lab. Other scientists think the effects of dark matter could be explained by fundamentally modifying our theories of gravity.

Has anyone detect dark matter? ›

Although dark matter particles have never actually been detected, researchers believe it will only be a matter of time; the countdown may have already started with results from LZ's first 60 “live days” of testing.

What is dark matter magic? ›

In anime/manga Dark Matter has broad range of powers, including Form Manipulation/Elemental Manipulation. It isn't associated with space, but more with "Supernatural" form of matter normally associated with Dark Energy Manipulation, various forms of Magic and Destructive Energy Manipulation.

Is dark matter a theory? ›

The existence of dark matter can be traced back to the pioneering discoveries of Fritz Zwicky and Jan Oort that the motion of galaxies in the Coma cluster, and of nearby stars in our own Galaxy, do not follow the expected motion based on Newton's law of gravity and the observed visible masses.

Does dark matter exist on earth? ›

Despite the almost overwhelming evidence that dark matter does indeed exist, we still don't know what it's made of. Detectors scattered around the world have been operating for decades, trying to catch the faint trace of a passing dark matter particle, but to no avail.

Can humans harness dark energy? ›

Probably not. Before scientists could even attempt to assess the possibility of harnessing dark energy as a source of electricity, we'd have to find it. If we were able to harness the power of dark energy, however, we'd be using it for a lot more than simply powering our iPhone.

What does dark energy tell us about the universe? ›

Universe Dark Energy-1 Expanding Universe

Astronomers theorize that the faster expansion rate is due to a mysterious, dark force that is pulling galaxies apart. One explanation for dark energy is that it is a property of space. Albert Einstein was the first person to realize that empty space is not nothing.

Does Earth have dark energy? ›

A physics experiment may have unexpectedly detected dark energy on Earth. “If it's true, it's a stunning discovery.” Dark energy isn't just dark — it's nigh invisible. Hypothesized by physicists to drive the accelerating expansion of the universe, dark energy has never been directly observed or measured.

How can we tell where invisible dark matter is? ›

Scientists determined the location and concentration of the cluster's dark matter by observing how its mass distorted the light from distant galaxies behind the cluster.

What is one way scientists study dark matter? ›

One way scientists indirectly study dark matter is by using gravitational lensing. Light going through a gravitational lens is similar to light going through an optical lens:4 it gets bent.


1. Saturday Morning Physics - April 23, 2022
(University of Michigan)
2. Steven M Girvin - “Circuit QED Quantum Sensing, Information Processing and Error Correction with
(Stanford Physics)
3. Deep Talks: An International Journey to Dark Matter Detection
(Sanford Underground Research Facility)
4. Revealing the Nature of Dark Matter
5. Direct Detection of sub-GeV Dark Matter: A New Frontier
(UT Physics Colloquium)
6. What If Dark Matter Is Just Black Holes?
(PBS Space Time)
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Name: Wyatt Volkman LLD

Birthday: 1992-02-16

Address: Suite 851 78549 Lubowitz Well, Wardside, TX 98080-8615

Phone: +67618977178100

Job: Manufacturing Director

Hobby: Running, Mountaineering, Inline skating, Writing, Baton twirling, Computer programming, Stone skipping

Introduction: My name is Wyatt Volkman LLD, I am a handsome, rich, comfortable, lively, zealous, graceful, gifted person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.